Maintain The Safety With Anti Lock Braking System While Driving
What is ABS?
ABS is an abbreviation for Anti-lock Braking System and allows for steering while maximizing braking. ABS was developed to reduce skidding and maintain steering control when brakes are used in an emergency situation. When used properly, an antilock braking system allows the driver to maintain directional stability and control over steering during emergency braking situations, particularly on wet and slippery road surfaces.
When was ABS introduced?
ABS was originally used in aerospace applications – specifically, to reduce wear and tear on aircraft tyres after landing. The first car (worldwide) to have ABS fitted as standard across the entire range was the Ford Granada Mk 3 (of 1985). BMW made the technology standard on all vehicles in 1986. Since it came into widespread use in production cars, ABS has made considerable progress. The technology is now much lighter and more efficient.
How does it work?
A typical ABS is composed of a central electronic unit, four speed sensors (one for each wheel), and two or more hydraulic valves on the brake circuit. When the system senses that any of the wheels are rotating considerably slower than the others (a condition that will bring it to lock) it moves the valves to decrease/increase the pressure on the braking circuit, effectively reducing/increasing the braking force on that wheel. This process is repeated continuously, causing a pulsing feel through the brake pedal.
Advantages of ABSIn effect, ABS is a mechanical way of cadence braking (or pumping the brakes). There are two advantages for the typical driver. One is that the ABS system is able to “pump” the brakes on and off much quicker than the driver’s leg, and the other is that it requires no skill or experience – the car does all of that for you.
Disadvantages of ABS
Unfortunately, safety experts have found that many drivers don’t benefit from ABS because the correct techniques for using them are almost the opposite of everything that most of us have been taught about emergency braking in cars. To gain any safety advantage from ABS, drivers must learn how to operate it correctly. ABS is designed to help the driver maintain control during emergency-braking by preventing the vehicle’s wheels from locking. This allows drivers to maintain steering control under heavy braking and to hit the brakes fully with less fear of skidding or loss of control. It does this by either preventing the wheels from locking, or if they do lock, by releasing and then reapplying the brakes once more.
In vehicles are not equipped with ABS, the driver must manually pump the brakes to prevent wheel lockup, maintain steering control and avoid hazards. In vehicles equipped with ABS, the driver’s foot remains firmly on the brake pedal, allowing the system to automatically pump the brakes. This makes ABS particularly useful for steering through skids, reducing both the likelihood and severity of collisions.
In Australia, The Royal Automatic Club of Victoria (RACV) was concerned about overseas research on ABS safety and commissioned Monash University Accident Research Centre (MUARC) to examine the Australian experience. MUARC analysed the crash records for a number of models that came equipped both with and without ABS, and compared their actual crash involvement.
The results were mixed, and rather disturbing. For multi-vehicle crashes, ABS-equipped vehicles were less likely to be involved (by about 18%) compared with the same model without ABS. However, for single-vehicle run-off-road crashes, e.g. leaving the road on a bend, ABS vehicles were over-involved by about 35% compared with the equivalent model without ABS. This increased involvement of ABS-equipped vehicles in run-off-road crashes is particularly concerning. Similar data is available for the US, which suggests that vehicles with ABS are 39% more likely to be involved in roll-over incidents.